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Qin Liangyu Monument

Monument to Qin Liangyu in Shizhu County in Chongqing, China.

Qin Liangyu – Ming Dynasty Female General

Qin Liangyu (Traditional Chinese: 秦良玉; pinyin: Qín Liángyù; 1574–1648) is one of the most renowned female warriors in China. She was the only woman regional commander or jiāngjūn (將軍; "general") of the Han Chinese Ming Dynasty (Traditional Chinese: 明朝; pinyin: Míng Cháo; 1368–1644). She fought beside her troops against rebels and bandits in southwestern China and in the northeast against invading Manchu tribes, who eventually established the foreign Qing Dynasty (Manchu Script: ᡩᠠᡳ᠌ᠴᡳᠩ ᡤᡠᡵᡠᠨ; Traditional Chinese: 大清; pinyin: Dà qīng; Manchu: Daiqing gurun; 1644–1912).

Qin Liangyu Monument Front View

Front View of Qin Liangyu Monument.

Qin Liangyu was born near Mingyu River (鳴玉溪邊) in Zhongzhou (忠州), which is the present-day municipality of Zhong County, Chongqing (忠縣, 重慶) in Sichuan Province (四川省) in southwest China. Her surname of Qin (秦) is that of the first emperor Qin Shi Huang (秦始皇; King of Qin r. 247–221 BC; Emperor of China r. 221–210 BC), who established the Qin dynasty (Traditional Chinese: 秦; pinyin: Qín; 221–206 BC) that united China during the imperial era of Chinese history. The character for Qin, Lianyu's surname, is a compound ideogram which combines two characters: chōng (舂) "to pound" and (禾) "grain." Liangyu's given name combines the characters liáng (良 "virtuous") and (玉 "jade").

Qin Liangyu

Qin Liangyu's loyalty, bravery, and military skill drew the attention of numerous Chinese historians. She is the only heroine included in a section of generals listed in the official Ming dynastic history of "Zhèngshǐ jiàng xiàng lièzhuàn" ("正史将相列传"; lit. "Biography of the Official History of Generals").

Qin Liangyu 13

The biography of Qin Liangyu has the following statement:

"良玉为人饶胆智, 善骑射, 兼通词翰, 仪度娴雅. 而驭下严峻, 每行军发令, 戎伍肃然. 所部号 '白杆兵', 为远近所惮."

"Liangyu is courageous and intelligent, good at riding and shooting (archery), and good at eloquence, with elegant manners. But the commander is stern, and every march is issued, the army is awe-inspiring. The title of the department is 'White Pole Soldier', which is terrified by the distance."

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The court of the succeeding Qing Dynasty commissioned the "Èrshísì Shǐ" ("二十四史"; lit. "Twenty-Four Histories"), the Chinese official dynastic histories to establish the Qing Dynasty's link to the earliest times of China. The dynastic histories began with the Xia Dynasty (Chinese: 夏朝; pinyin: Xiàcháo; c. 2070–c. 1600 BC), the earliest dynasty of China, to the Ming Dynasty. The official historical work that covered the Ming Dynasty was Míngshǐ (明史; lit. "History of Ming" or "Ming History"). It included a biography of Qin Liangyu.

Concept Image of Qin Liangyu

Concept image of Qin Liangyu. Background banner features character of 明 (Míng; lit. "bright").

The Míngshǐ: Qínliángyù Chuán (明史:秦良玉傳; lit. "History of Ming: Biography of Qin Liangyu") describes Liangyu as:

"文雅端莊, 卻是一位威風凜凜的統帥,為人所敬仰,人稱 '白兵',遠近畏懼."

"Refined and elegant, yet a stern commander with a towering presence who was revered by her troops. Her troops were called the 'White Staff Soldiers', and were dreaded far and near."

General Feng Yuxiang (冯玉祥; 1882–1948), who was recognized as a patriot of China by the Chinese Nationalists and Communists alike, for his efforts to establish stability following the fall of the Qing Dynasty in the 20th century and his service against Japanese invaders during World War II is quoted as saying: "Remember Hua Mulan; learn from Qin Liangyu."

Qin Lianyu Novel Cover 3

Cover of novel "Qin Liangyu" by Bei Jin Sanfu.

Qin Liangyu was born to ethnic minority Miao (苗族) parents during the second year of the reign of the Wanli Emperor (Traditional Chinese: 萬曆帝; pinyin: Wànlì Dì; r. 1572–1620), the 14th emperor of the Ming Dynasty. The Miao (a Chinese term) are a collection of distinct ethnic peoples dwelling in Southern China and Southeast Asia, who speak varied Hmongic languages. The different groups have their own names (some with alternative spellings) for themselves like Hmu, Xong, and A-Hmao. Liangyu was of the Hmong people.

Liangyu was the third of four children within her family, having two older brothers and one younger brother. Her father, Qin Kui (秦葵) gained the post of a gòngshēng (貢生) by passing a civil Chinese imperial examination, or kējǔ (科舉; lit. "subject recommendation"). The Ming Dynasty was then beset internally by a string of rebellions by peasants and regional warlords and externally by the increasing encroachments of the Manchus from beyond northern China, who coveted the Central Plains, or the Zhongyuan (Traditional Chinese: 中原; pinyin: Zhōngyuán), which lay between the lower and middle reaches of the Yellow River (Traditional Chinese: 黃河; pinyin: Huáng hé), centered on the area between the cities of Luoyang (洛阳市) and Kaifeng (開封). The Central Plains is the birthplace of Chinese civilization and is traditionally viewed by Han Chinese as "the center of the world."

Though highly intelligent and born of a scholarly family, Qin Liangyu's interests leaned more to the study and pursuit of the warrior arts. Additionally, Qin Kui, who sensed the coming turmoil of the last years of the Ming Dynasty, believed that girls should be educated the same as boys. He had Qin Liangyu learn history, the Confucian classics (one of China's Three Teachings), and martial arts with her three brothers. Qin Liangyu became adept at wielding weapons, archery, horse-riding, and swimming. She was regarded to have mastered martial arts more proficiently than her brothers. She was also noted for her skill as a poet.

Qin Liangyu 5

Qin Liangyu was known to admire Princess Pingyang (Traditional Chinese: 平阳公主; pinyin: Píngyáng Gōngzhǔ; c. 598–623; t. 618–623), the daughter of Emperor Gaozu (唐高祖; 566–635; r. 618–626), founder of the Tang Dynasty (Traditional Chinese: 唐朝; pinyin: Tángcháo; 618–690, 705–907). Princess Pingyang had raised and led an army that helped to establish the rule of the Tang.

Qin Kui, who was impressed by his daughter's ability but disheartened by her gender, is recorded as commending her with the backhanded praise:

"Did you know that you are much more talented than all your brothers? What a pity you are a woman. Of course, if you are a man, you will probably be a great warlord!"

Dissatisfied with her father's view, Qin Liangyu was quoted as answering:

"Being a military officer alone is enough for me to control a city and lead an army!"

In 1595, a 21 year old Qin Liangyu recruited her relatives to help find a good husband for her. It was decided that a tournament would be held in which suitors would compete for her hand. Many men came from near and far as word of her beauty, intelligence, and fighting prowess spread.

Qin Liangyu

Eventually, one admirer, Ma Qiancheng (馬千乘; 1570–1613), won the tournament and wedded Qin Liangyu during the 23rd year of Wanli. Thus began a destined relationship in troubled times.

Heroine Novel Cover

Cover of Qin Liangyu romance novel "Heroine" published in 1985.

Upon being wed, Qin Liangyu received a (字; "character"), courtesy name, or style name, of Zhēnsù (貞素; "Chaste Essence"). Her husband was the hereditary xuānfǔshǐ (宣撫使; "provincial governor"), or tǔsī (土司; "headman" or "chieftain), of Shizhu County (石柱县) in southeastern Chongqing, China. Shizu County lay south of the Yangtze River (Traditional Chinese: 揚子江; pinyin: Cháng Jiāng). He also had the title of Xuānbù hé ānfǔ zhuānyuán (宣布和安撫專員; "Announcing and Pacifying Commissioner"). Shizhu literally means "Stone Pillars." The county was named after two large human-like natural stone pillars on Wanshou Mountain (萬壽山). In local lore, the pillars were once a loving couple who were kept apart by feudal obligation. The two lovers died together tragically and transformed into stone pillars that stood face-to-face on Wanshou Mountain (萬壽山), never to be parted again.

Stone Pillars

Male (Right) and Female (Left) Stone Pillars of Shizhu County.

Ma Qiancheng's ancestors were famous. One such forebear was Ma Yuan (馬援; 14 BC–49 AD) of the Eastern Han Dynasty (Traditional Chinese: 東漢; pinyin: Dōnghàn; 25 AD–220 AD). Ma Yuan was a politician and one of the more famous generals of Chinese history. His accomplishments included assisting Emperor Guangwu of Han (漢光武帝; r. 5 BC–57 AD) unite China, quelling the rebellions of the Trưng sisters, female Vietnamese military leaders, in northern Vietnam (a commandery or district of the Han Dynasty) and the Wulin tribes in southwest and south central China, and the conquest of the Qiang people in northwest China. He received the title of Fúbō Jiāngjūn (伏波將軍; "General who Calms the Waves"). Ma Yuan was also the source of two Chinese chengyu (成語) sayings, idioms consisting of four characters. The first expression was "wrapping one's body with horse leather" (Traditional Chinese: 馬革裹屍; pinyin: mǎgé guǒ shī; lit. "to be buried in a horse hide," "to give up one's life on the battlefield," or "die on the battlefield"), which meant being so dedicated to one's responsibilities that one is willing to perish on the field of battle and have his body wrapped in horse leather. Ma Yuan was said to have spoken the phrase while explaining to a friend about why he wished to continue his military service. The second expression was "drawing a tiger improperly results in a dog" (Traditional Chinese: 畫虎不成反類犬; pinyin: huà hǔ bùchéng fǎn lèi quǎn; lit. "to try to draw a tiger but end up with a likeness of a dog," "to try to do something overambitious and end up botching it," or "painting a tiger but coming out like a dog"). It was an admonition by Ma Yuan to his nephews to be mindful of their behavior and to avoid imitating a then famous hero named Du Bao (杜保). He warned his nephews that if one imitated Du Bao but was not as valorous as Du Bao, such a person would end up looking a foolish delinquent or lout.

Another famous ancestor of Ma Qiancheng's was Ma Dinghu (馬定虎) who lived during the time of the Southern Song Dynasty (Traditional Chinese: 南宋; pinyin: Nánsòng; 1127–1279). Ma Dinghu protected Wuxi County (巫溪县), which was part of Chongqing Municipality, from the attacks of Jurchen horseback raiders from the north, who would eventually rename themselves as the Manchu late in the life of Qin Liangyu. Ma Dinghu was given the position of xuānfǔshǐ of Shizu County, which was inherited by later generations of the Ma family down to the time of Ma Qiancheng.

Qin Liangyu and Ma Qiancheng proved to be well matched. Their marriage was harmonious and Ma Qiancheng often solicited Qin Liangyu's advice on military matters. She and her husband trained a military force called the Bái Gùn Jūn (白棍軍; lit. "White Staff Army" or "White Pole Army"). Additionally, Qin Liangyu raised an elite unit of 500 women among the white soldiers.

White Staff Soldier

Close-up of Qin Liangyu monument wielding White Staff Spear with front bladed iron hook and rear iron ring.

The "White Pole Army" was so-named for its use of a long thrusting spear with a shaft made of local eucalyptus white wood. The front end of the weapon featured a bladed iron hook and an iron ring was mounted on the tail end. During combat, the hook could be used to thrust, slash, and pull opponents. The ring could be used as a hammering surface. In addition to being wielded as a weapon, the spear could be interconnected with other spears of the same design to form a climbing wall that enabled soldiers to scale city walls or cliffs and hills. Qin Liangyu was credited for inventing this spear, which was well-suited for mountain warfare. She soon joined her husband on minor campaigns against local warlords on the southwestern border of China.

Qin Liangyu 11

During 1599, the 26th year of Wanli, Yang Yinglong (楊應龍), the 29th hereditary tǔsī of the Chiefdom of Bozhou (播州土司) rose in rebellion. Located near the present-day city of Zunyi (遵义市) in Guizhou Province (贵州省) in Southwest China, the autonomous Chiefdom of Bozhou was established in 876 by the Yang clan during the Tang Dynasty. It lasted about 725 years across 29 generations. The chief castle in Bozhou was Hailongtun (Traditional Chinese: 海龍屯; pinyin: Hǎilóng tún; lit. "Sea Dragon Castle"), a formidable fortress on Longyan Mountain (龍巖山) by Hailongtun Village, Gaoping Town, Zunyi City (海龍屯村, 高坪鎮, 遵義市) in Guizhou Province. Hailongtun was built in 1257 during the time of the Southern Song Dynasty. Yang Yinglong led about 17,000 native Bozhou soldiers who resisted a Ming army of 240,000 for 114 days across two calendar years. Ma Qiancheng brought 3,000 riders with him to aid in suppressing the revolt while Qin Liangyu led her elite unit of 500 female cavalry soldiers to support her husband.

Hailongtun Fortress

Hailongtun Fortress of Yang Yinglong.

According to the Míngshǐ: Qínliángyù Chuán, "Liangyu had separate command of 500 elite troops and followed after Qiancheng with the army's food supply." On the second day of the first lunar month of the next year, the Bozhou rebels attempted a sneak attack on the Ming forces but "Liangyu and her husband defeated them and chased them back into rebel territory, taking over (the town of Jinzhu (金竹) and another) seven enemy strongholds. She pushed right on to take Mulberry Pass (桑树關) in what was a major defeat (at the Battle of Loushan (娄山之戰)) for the enemy. This was the first of her major achievements on the battlefields of Southern Sichuan (川南)."

Qin Liangyu 12

Qin Liangyu and Ma Qiancheng captured the fortress of Hailongtun. They successfully defeated the rebellion and demolished the rebels' camps. Yang Yinglong committed suicide and the Ming Dynasty abolished the Chiefdom of Bozhou in 1600. Ma Qiancheng, Qin Liangyu, and their White Staff Army became famous for the first time in China.

Qin Liangyu Reviewing White Staff Army

Qin Liangyu Reviewing White Staff Army.

In 1613, the 41st year of Wanli, Ma Qiancheng became a victim of the court politics of the Ming Dynasty, though. He fell afoul of Qiu Chengyun (邱乘雲), an influential eunuch at the Ming court, whom he refused to bribe. He was falsely accused by an adulterer, then arrested and sent to prison, where he was tortured to death at the age of 43. As his son Ma Xianglin (馬祥麟) was too young to assume leadership of Shizu County, Qin Liangyu was appointed xuānfǔshǐ in her husband's place. The cavalry under her command were thereafter named the White Cavalry (白杆兵).

In 1620, the Wanli Emperor passed away and was succeeded by his eldest son who became the Taichang Emperor (泰昌帝) on August 28, 1620. His reign ended less than one month later on September 26, 1620 due to excessive sexual indulgence with palace maidens and severe diarrhea. He was succeeded in turn by his son, the Tianqi Emperor (天啓帝; r. 1620–1627).

Over the next several years, Qin Liangyu and her family became engrossed in a series of campaigns to put down internal rebellions and repulse foreign invasions.

Qin Liangyu in Battle

During 1620, the first year of Tianqi, Qin Bangping (秦邦屏), an older brother of Qin Liangyu's, led 3,000 White Cavalry to the Liaodong Peninsula (遼東半島) in Liaoning Province (辽宁省) on the frontier of Northeast China to turn back an attack by invading Manchu-led forces from what was then called the Later Jin Dynasty (Manchu Script: ᡩᠠᡳ᠌ᠴᡳᠩ ᡤᡠᡵᡠᠨ; Traditional Chinese: 金國; pinyin: Jīn guó; Manchu: Aisin Gurun; 1616–1636; renamed the Qing Dynasty in 1636). The Ming court bestowed a dynastic third-grade official uniform to Qin Liangyu as a reward.

Qin Liangyu Uniform

Blue satin embroidered gold phoenix shirt worn by Qin Liangyu.

In 1621, Qin Bangping was slain at the Battle of Hun River (渾河之戰) with over a thousand of his troops, though. At her own expense, Qin Liangyu led another 3,000 White Cavalry northward. She held the strategic Shanhai Pass (山海關; lit. "Mountain and Sea Pass") against the Manchus and turned them back. The fame of Qin Liangyu and the White Staff Army rose further. A second-grade official uniform was awarded to her as well.

In the late fall of 1621, the aboriginal Yi people revolted in the southwestern provinces of Sichuan and Guizhou in the She-An Rebellion (奢安之亂). The Yi rose in rebellion due to taxes levied by the Ming Dynasty to support the defensive campaign in the frontier province of Liaodong where the Manchurian Jurchens were invading. The aboriginal Yi chieftains She Chongming (奢崇明) and An Bangyan (安邦彥) led the revolt.

Qin Liangyu 8

In 1623, the third year of Tianqi, Qin Liangyu led the White Cavalry to assist other Ming forces in suppressing the rebellion. She saved Chengdu (成都市), the capital of Sichuan, from attack by the rebels and she retook Chongqing, which had fallen to the Yi people. In the next year, Qin Minping (秦民屏), her other older brother, was killed in action against the forces of An Bangyan. Qin Liancheng proceeded to take Hongya Hill (洪崖山), Qingshan Hill (青山), Guanyin Temple (觀音寺), and other rebel bases, cutting off the rebels' routes for retreat. The revolt was eventually put down in the summer of 1629.

As reward, the Ming Imperial Court bestowed upon Qin Liangyu the title of Nǚshì (女士; lit. "Lady"), the post of Jūnwù Zǒng Shǔ Shǔzhǎng (軍務總署署長 lit. "Overall Administrator of Military Affairs"), and the rank of Zǒng Sīlìng (總司令; lit. "Commander-in-Chief") for Sichuan Province. The Apocalypse years for the Ming Dynasty had dawned, though.

Qin Liangyu 14

In 1630, forces of the Later Jin placed the Ming capital, Beijing (北京市), under siege. Qin Liangyu once again led troops from Sichuan at her own expense. She reinforced the capital defenders and helped raise the siege. Afterwards, she paraded through Beijing as an honored hero. The Chongzhen Emperor (Traditional Chinese: 崇禎; pinyin: Chóngzhēn; r. 1627–1644), the 17th and last Ming leader as well as the last Han Chinese ruler before the Manchu conquest, showered Qin Liangyu with praises and furnished her with four poems.

Qin Liangyu 3

In 1634, the seventh year of Chongzhen, Zhang Xianzhong (张献忠; 1606–1647) led a rebel peasant army into Sichuan. A deserter from the Ming army with a tall stature, yellow complexion, and "tiger chin" (hǔ hàn; 虎頷), he was nicknamed the "Yellow Tiger" (Huáng hǔ; 黃虎). Qin Liangyu and her son, Ma Xianglin, waged a war of attrition against Zhang Xianzhong's forces. Though the troops of Qin Liangyu and her son suffered heavy losses, they waged a campaign of resistance for over half a decade. Mother and son eventually led the White Cavalry in a decisive attack on the rebels at Kuizhou (夔州), present-day Fengjie County, Chongqing (奉節縣, 重慶) municipality in Southwest China. They defeated the rebels and drove them from the province.

In 1640, the 13th year of Chongzhen, Qin Liangyu confronted another rebel peasant army which was led by Luo Rucai (羅汝才; ?─1642), who had emerged in Northwest China. Luo Rucai styled himself as Cao Cao (曹操) after the famous statesman and general who restored a measure of order following the end of the Eastern Han Dynasty and founded the state of Wei (魏) during China's Three Kingdoms era (220–280). Luo Rucai led a force that attacked Kui Prefecture (夔州) and Wushan County (巫山县) in Chongqing municipality. Qin Liangyu defeated his troops, though, and cast him out of Sichuan.

In recognition of her merits and service to the Ming Dynasty, the Chongzhen Emperor appointed Qin Liangyu as the Crown Prince's Guardian, or Tàizǐ tàibǎo (太子太保; lit. "Tutor to the Crown Prince"), which was the highest honor an official could receive in imperial China. He also conferred upon her the title "Marquis Zhongzhen" (忠貞侯; lit. "Loyal and Chaste/Dependable Marquis").

Loyal Hou Qin Liangyu Novel Cover

Cover of novel "Loyal Hou Qin Liangyu" by Tian Yingliang.

The Ming Dynasty was toppled in April 1644, though, when Beijing was captured by the forces of the Han Chinese peasant rebel leader Li Zicheng (李自成; 1606–1645). Li Zicheng ruled over northern China as Emperor of the short-lived Shun Dynasty (Traditional Chinese: 順朝; pinyin: Shùn cháo; 1644–1649). He failed to solidify his military and political control and died a year later. His successors were in turn overthrown by the emergent Later Jin Dynasty, which renamed itself as the Qing Dynasty.

Ming loyalists created a series of rump states in southern China under the nominal sovereignty of the Southern Ming Dynasty (Chinese: 南明; pinyin: Nán Míng; 1644–1662 or 1683) to resist the newly emergent Qing Dynasty in northern China. The titular ruler, the Longwu Emperor (隆武; r. 1645–1646), held court in the coastal city of Fuzhou (福州市) in Fujian Province (福建省) on the southeast coast of China.

Qin Liangyu maintained control over part of Shizhu County during the transition from Ming to Qing that stretched from 1618 to 1683. She enacted a policy of agricultural self-sufficiency that drew many refugees. She aided an estimated 100,000 displaced people to resettle in Shizhu County.

In 1646, forces of the Qing Dynasty invaded Fujian Province and laid siege to Fuzhou. Emperor Longwu sent a messenger to Qin Liangyu giving her the titles of Shèng Hóu (聖侯; lit. "Holy Marquis") and Huáng Tàizǐ de Bǎohù Zhě–Zhōngchéng yǔ Róngyù de Gōngjué Fūrén (皇太子的保護者–忠誠與榮譽的公爵夫人; lit. "Protector of the Crown Prince–Duchess of Loyalty and Honor"). She became the only female general named marquis in Chinese history. Emperor Longwu commanded her to take the field against the Manchus once more. Aged 73, Qin Liangyu accepted her commission. But before she could mobilize her forces, Fuzhou fell and Emperor Longwu was captured and executed. Other Ming princes continued to hold out, but the end was now in sight for the Ming Dynasty.

Qin Liangyu 7

Late Qing Dynasty-era painting by Ye Yanlan (1823–1897).

In 1648, Qin Liangyu reviewed her troops one day. When she dismounted her peach-and-white horse, though, she unexpectedly "leaned forward and died" at the age of 75. She was buried in a tomb on Huilong Mountain (迴龍山) by present-day Yazhuang Village, Dahe Township, Shizhu County (雅莊村, 大河鄉, 石柱縣) on the north bank of the Donglong River (東龍河). She was conferred with the posthumous name Zhōngzhēn (忠貞; lit. "Loyal and Chaste") and was survived by her son Ma Xianglin.

Qin Liangyu Tomb

A tomb of Qin Liangyu.

To prevent the Qing court from having her corpse desecrated, Qin Liangyu's retainers set up 72 possible grave sites and 48 mausoleums. They were scattered across Zhong County and Shizhu County to confuse the Qing and their Han Chinese collaborators.

Qin Liangyu Tomb Close-up

Close-up of Qin Liangyu tomb.

Although long deceased, Qin Liangyu is far from forgotten in China. She is a popular character in historical novels and she has served as an inspiration for movies, music, and sculpture. She is also sometimes portrayed as a door goddess or threshold guardian, one of the Menshen (門神; lit. "gate god(s)"), used to ward against evil influences and to encourage the entry of benign ones. She is often partnered with Mu Guiying (穆桂英), a legendary heroine from the time of the Northern Song Dynasty (Traditonal Chinese: 北宋; pinyin: Běisòng; 960–1127).

1953 Qin Liangyu Movie Still

Still from 1953 movie of "Qin Liangyu" featuring actress Yu Suqiu.

A museum with exhibits of Qin Liangyu's life, weapons, and armor was built in Shizhu County, Chongqing. Her tomb is a modern day tourist attraction. The poems of Qin Liangyu have lived on as well and were praised by later generations of the Chinese educated class. A statue of Qin Liangyu stands in the Ganyu Hall (贛榆廳) of the Shibaozhai (Traditional Chinese: 石寶寨; pinyin: shí bǎo zhài; lit. "Precious Stone Fortress") in Zhong County. The Shibaozhai is a pavilion dedicated to Mañjuśrī (Sanskrit: मञ्जुश्री; lit. "Gentle Glory"), or Wénshū (文殊) in Mandarin Chinese, a bodhisattva associated with wisdom in Mahāyāna Buddhism.

Qin Liangyu Trademark

Trademark picture of Qin Liangyu as "the Beauty" of Tianfu Dyeing and Weaving Factory.

Qin Liangyu is an integral part of China's tradition of female martial artists. Men and women can learn the practical techniques and culture of the monks and nuns of the Shaolin Temple in martial arts classes offered by the Michigan Shaolin Wugong Temple.



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